Authors: Hamideh Bitaraf and Saifur Rahman
Abstract: Curtailed wind energy is a challenge in utilities with high wind energy penetration. This happens mainly when wind generation exceeds load minus the minimum stable operating point of generation units. At first, the role of generation mix on the curtailed wind energy is analyzed. Then, demand response (DR) applications are modeled to quantify additional reductions in the curtailed wind energy. The uniqueness of this approach is that the impact of the DR rebound effect on the system load shape can be directly reflected. This allows scheduling of DR such that the rebound period (higher demand) aligns itself with high wind output period. This minimizes the need for curtailment. Next, the issue of charging/discharging different large-scale energy storage technologies (e.g., compressed air energy storage, pumped hydro energy storage, and batteries) is addressed. This allows their im- pact on wind curtailment to be analyzed in detail. Finally, various combinations of energy storage and DR options are considered for investigating their impacts on further reducing wind curtailments. This problem is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming using wind and load data from Bonneville Power Administration..