Authors: Hui Liu, Houlin Pan, Ni Wang, Muhammad Zain Yousaf, Hui Hwang Goh and Saifur Rahman
Journal: IEEE Trans on Smart Grid, vol.13, no. 5, Sep. 2022
Under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) is an important measure for tackling low-frequency events caused by load-generation imbalance. However, the uncertainty of wind power amplifies power imbalances and can potentially impair frequency stability. Electric vehicles (EVs) present a more effective means for addressing this issue compared to load shedding. However, EVs have several limitations such as commute randomness. To ensure frequency stability and simultaneously reduce load shedding, a bi-level confidence-interval-based optimal strategy is proposed to enable the participation of EVs in UFLS, where the uncertainties of wind power and the commute randomness of EVs are estimated using a non-parametric kernel density estimation (KDE) method. In bi-level optimization, the upper level reduces the dependency on commute randomness and the wind power uncertainty during load-shedding events. Further, the upper-level solutions are sent to EV charging stations for emergency dispatch. By contrast, at the lower level, an approximation-function-based priority is proposed to optimize the task allocation. Simulation results show the advantages of the proposed approach in maintaining a stable frequency compared with traditional and adaptive UFLS schemes.